**Sources:**

- https://www.brianmac.co.uk/sprints/tp400.htm
- http://www.livestrong.com/article/380872-400-and-800-meter-workouts/
- http://www.livestrong.com/article/405775-400m-sprint-workouts/
- http://www.momentumsports.co.uk/Tt400sSpeed.asp
- http://www.ustfccca.org/assets/symposiums/2012/PDFs/Grigg-Ron-400-meter-training.pdf
- http://trackstarusa.com/400m-workouts/
- http://digitaltrackandfield.com/400-meter-training-track-field/
- http://completetrackandfield.com/4-goals-of-400m-training/
- http://speedendurance.com/2012/11/06/400-meter-training-workouts-annual-plan/
- http://www.texastrack.com/coaching_article_4.htm

The 400m sprinter derives **14% of their fuel from the anaerobic alactic** (phosphagen) energy system, **48% from the anaerobic lactic** (glycolytic) energy system and **38% from the aerobic system**. The following table provides possible training loads for the development of each energy system.

**The “% effort” column is calculated using the athletes current 100m time.**

Energy System | Quality | % effort | Recovery | Rep Distance | Total distance | |

Anaerobic Alactic (Phosphagen) |
Sp | Power | 95-100% | >3 minutes | 30m to 80m | 200m to 400m |

SpE | Capacity | 85-95% | >8 minutes | 150m to 400m | 400m to 800m | |

Anaerobic Lactic (Glycolytic) |
SE1 | Power | 75-85% | 1:4 active | 100m to 300m | 800m to 1600m |

SE2 | Capacity | 65-75% | 1:2 active | 400m to 700m | 1600m to 3000m | |

Aerobic | E1 | Power | 55-65% | 1:1 active | 1km to 3km | 3000m to 5000m |

E2 | Capacity | 45-55% | 1:1 active | 1km to 3km | 5000m to 8000m |

**Evaluation Tests**

The following evaluation tests can be used to monitor the sprint athlete’s development:

- 10 stride test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
- 30 metre acceleration test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
- 40 yard sprint test to predict your potential 400 metre time
- 400 metres Control tests for 400 metres athletes
- 400 metres Drop off test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
- 60 metre speed test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
- Balke VO
_{2}max test for endurance - Cooper VO
_{2}max test for endurance - Flying 30 metres speed test for 100 metres and 200 metres athletes
- Harvard step test – measure of cardiovascular fitness
- LAS (Lactic vs Speed ) Test – specific to 400 metres runners
- Leg Elastic Strength test
- McCloy Physical Fitness test
- Quadrathon an excellent all round test.
- Queens College Step Test – measure of cardiovascular fitness
- RAST – Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test
- Standing Long Jump test
- Strength test – upper body (Bench Press)
- Strength test – lower body (Leg Press)
- Sit Ups test – abdominal strength
- Sit and Reach test – lower back and hamstring test
- Vertical Jump test

**The 400m is all about speed and the ability to run at over 90% of maximum speed for the duration of the race.** This involves **building a level of tolerance to the raised lactate levels in the bloodstream** (produced by working at a level too high to adequately re-oxygenate the blood).

There are 3 areas of work that are needed to produce your best results in a race.

**Pure Speed** – this is the ability to improve your top speed. Even the greatest athletes on the planet can only hold this for up to 40m, but if you improve this then running at 90% of maximum speed is clearly faster.

**Speed Endurance** – The key to 100m and 200m running, this is also very important here. It is the ability to run at near maximal speed for further than pure speed will allow. Generally, this doesn’t involve high levels of lactate and will be repetitions of up to 150m (or maybe 200m if long recoveries are involved).

**Lactic Tolerance** – 400m races are won and lost in the last 100m often by the athlete who “dies” the least. A runner like Michael Johnson used to move away most significantlly from the rest of the field in the last 100m – not because he accelerated, but because he slowed less than the other athletes. Here you are looking to condition your body to cope well with the high levels of lactate or lactic acid, which are causing you to slow (a natural reaction of the body to avoid your doing permanent damage to yourself).

**Types of Workouts:**

**Breakdowns****Interval****Tempo****Ladder****Repeat Sprints****Flying Starts****Rhythm****Tabata Interval****“Dogging Days”**

**Breakdowns**

Breakdown workouts are commonplace in a track and field training program designed to improve lactic acid tolerance. **This single workout for one training session includes several runs that gradually decrease in length.** Begin the breakdown workout with a 600 m run **followed with a recovery period lasting the same amount of time it took to run it** before moving to the 500 m. Run 500 m with an equal recovery period as the time it took to run; continue with a 400 m run and recovery before finishing with the final two runs of 300 m run and 200 m. **You can do this type of workout once each week.**

**Interval**

Interval workouts are **characterized by alternating periods of work and rest** and can be customized to improve aerobic and anaerobic ability. The goal of the workout is to maintain the same amount of speed and distance for all rounds. Due to the intensity of this workout, **don’t do it more than once a week**.

**Tempo**

Tempo runs for the 400 and 800 runners **focus on the goal race time** for the individual runner. These workouts train the runner to **find the pace and comfort level with running at the specific speed**. Try to incorporate one tempo workout into your weekly training schedule.

**Ladder**

Ladder workouts **use varying distances and times and are characterized by decreasing and increasing the distances and times** throughout the workout. To avoid injury, **don’t do this type of workout more than once a week**. Alternate it with some of the other workout options.

**Repeat Sprints**

Repeat sprints can be **customized to meet the specific demands of the 400 meter** dash. **Using short distances ranging from 120 to 200 meters**, you run a series of sprints near top speed with a specific rest interval between each sprint. The goal of the workout is to maintain a **high intensity level for every interval**.

**Flying Starts**

**Flying starts sprint workouts allow you to accelerate so you can focus on top-speed running mechanics.** Start 10 meters behind the starting line for an acceleration zone so you cross the starting line at top speed. Continue for a distance of 50 to 100 meters at your 400 meter race pace. Rest for three minutes and **repeat the flying starts for 10 rounds**.

**Rhythm Workout**

While the 400 meter dash is a sprint, **you must have a specific tempo and rhythm to reach your best time**. For a rhythm workout, start at the starting line and **run 100 meters at your race pace, followed by a 50-meter jog for recovery**. For example, if your race time is 52 seconds, aim to finish the 100 meter interval in 13 seconds. Immediately continue with another 100 meter interval at race pace, followed by another 50 meter jog recovery. Do seven repetitions of this cycle of 100 meters on and 50 meters off.

**Tabata Intervals**

**Tabata intervals focus on speed, stamina and endurance**. Sprint as far as possible for 20 seconds, followed by 10 seconds of rest for a total of eight rounds. The goal is to cover as much distance as possible during every sprint interval without reducing the distance in the later rounds. **Use the last two rounds to work on your stamina and endurance to simulate the home stretch of a 400 meter race.**

**Dogging Days:**

This workouts are simply here to run you into the ground, like literally have you on the ground exhausted. They can be any type of workout with a short rest of less than 1 min inbetween runs for 20+ repititions.

**Example Workouts (also in sources):**

- 4 x 40m with 5 minutes rest prior to a longer session will start to build up speed in this phase.
- 4 x 30m from blocks

3 x flying 30m (with a 20m run up)

3 x 30 overspeed work (with elastic or slightly downhill would make a very good workout. It is important to note that this is very intensive and good preparation over the previous months is needed to attempt it without undue risk of injury. - 10 x 150m (3mins) (80% effort)
- 5 x 200m (7mins) (90% effort)
- 4 x 150m (15mins) (98% effort)
- 6 x 500m (4mins) (running at a controlled pace)
- 600, 500, 400, 300 (10mins)
- 500, 300, 200 (20mins) (as fast as possible)
- 6 x 80m w/ 8’ rest
- 3 x 4 x 50m w/ 1:30 on reps, 5 min. on sets
- 5 x 150m w/ 10 min. rest
- 4 x 250m w/ 12 min. rest
- 2 x 50 sec. boys/60sec. girls w/ 20 min. rest
- 10 x 150 @ 75% of 200m pace, w/ 50m walk in 1 minute
- 3-4 x 300 @ 85% of 400m goal pace w/ 4 min rest
- 3 x 200 w/ 1:00 rest
- 4 x 30m w/ 90 sec. rest 5 x 150 w/ 90 sec. rest (1 st 100 @ 800 feel, last 50 fast) 8 min. rest then 1 x 300 max.
- 3 x 800 @ 10k pace (PR+40-50s)w/ 200 jog recovery
- 3 x 300 @ 800 pace w/ 300m jog recovery
- 3 x 150 @ 400 pace w/ 200m jog, 50m walk recovery
- 3-4x 3x 30m accelerations from the crouch position @95-100% with a recovery of 3′/6’
- 3-4x 3x 30-50m block starts @ 95-100% 3′/6’
- 3-4x 3x 30-50m sled pulls @ 95-100% 3’/6’
- 3-4x 3x 30-50m sprints with parachute or bungee @ 95-100% 3′/6’
- 3×3 Fly 30’s @ 95-100% 3′/6′ (30m accel. zone with 30m fly zone)
- 100-200-100-200-100-200-100-200-100m @ 80-89% with a recovery of 2-3′
- 1-2 sets of 100-200-300-200-100m @ 80-89% with rest and recovery at 2-3′/5′
- 100-200-300-400-500-400-300-200-100m @ 80-87% 3-6′
- 4-7x 45 second runs @ 80-85% effort with a recovery of 3-5′
- 80-100-120-100-80m @ 95-100% 6-8′ recovery
- 100-120-100-80-100-120-100m @ 95-100% with 6-10’
- 3-6x 120m @ 95-100% with 6-10′ recovery
- 3-5x 150m @ 95-100% with 6-10′ recovery
- 150-300-150m @ 95-100% with 12-15′ recovery (SE-1)
- 2-3 sets of 150+150m @ 95-100% with 30”/12-15′ recovery (SE-1)
- 2-4x 300m @ 90-100% with 15-30min recovery (SE-2)
- 300-400-300m @ 90-100% with 15-30min recovery (SE-2)
- 300-600-300m @ 90-100% with 15-30min recovery (SE-2)
- 6 x 250 @ :30 – :44 two min. rest (plyometrics)
- 15 – 17 min. run
- 10 x 300 @ :48 – :56 2 1/2 min. rest
- 2 x 100 / 200 / 300 / 200 / 100

walk interval

:13 :28 :52 :28 :13

5 min. rest then 1 x 500 @ 3/4 speed - 10 min.run + 1 x 400 – 300 – 200 – 300 – 400 any speed, :90 rest
- 10 min. run

3 x jog 400 – walk 200 – stride 200 – walk – 200 ladder

10 x 100 pick-ups on straight – walk turns - 1 x 500 @ 1.:27 – 1:35

2 x 400 @ :68 – :74 2 min. rest

3 x 200 @ :32 – :35 - 6 x 100 @ 3/4 speed – walk interval

3 x 200 @ 3/4 speed – walk interval

baton trains for 3 laps (3-4 to a group)

6 x flying 50’s – - Easy 300’s – walk 200 try for 6-8
- 3 x 300 – 100 combo’s :45 – :49 walk 100 then full speed 100
- 8 x 150 @ :21.5 – :24.5 2 min. rest
- Long run 15 – 20 min.

600 – 400 – 200 – 100 ladder @ 3/4 speed

stride straights and walk curve (3 laps) - 8 x 300 @ :47 – :50 2 m (2 sets of 4, 5 min. between sets)
- 8 x 150 and lots of exchanges
- 300 / 200 / 150 / 100 ladder
- 10 flying 50’s
- 3 x 300 @ :52 or below – 2 m 5 m between 300 and 200’s

2 x 200 @ :31 or below – 1 1/2 m 3 m between 200 and 500

1 x 500 @ best effort

10 – 15 strides up gradual hill - 5 laps sprint curve and slow jog straight (keep moving)

10 x flying 40’s

4 laps @ jog / walking turns - 3 x 300 – 100 combo’s (:45 – :49, 100 under :15)
- 10 x 150 @ :20.5 0 :22.5 2 sets of 5 5m between sets

Long cool down and 4 x 4 exchanges - Ladder day 3 x 300 (2m) 200 (2m) 100 (:90)
- 1 x 250 (3m) 4 x 150 (1m) rest 7 min. and full speed 100 –

Finish with flying 50’s - 3 x 300 – 100 combo’s (:45 – :49, 100 under :15)
- 3 x 100 @ :13 (2m) 3 x 200 @ :28 – :29 (2m) 2 x 250 @ :36 – :38

Finish with exchanges - Sprint ladders

1 x 300 @ (:39 – :45) 3 x 150 @ (:21 – :23) 6 x 100 @ (:12 – :14) 1m rest intervals

4 x 4, 4 x 2, 4 x 1 exchanges - Long warm up and extra stretching

4 x 150 @ 3/4 speed 4 easy laps - 4 x 100 @ :12.5 – :13.8 (:90 rest)

2 x 200 @ :25.0 – :28.9 (2 m rest)

5 x 75 sprint from blocks and 4 x 2, 4 x 4 exchanges - 4 x 200 @ :25.1 5 x 100 @ :12.1 (2m rest intervals)
- 3 x 600 @ 1;35 – 1;38 (4m rest)
- 3 x 300 @ :39 – :42 1 x 500 @ 1:15 – 1:18 (4m rest)
- 4 x 100 / 150 @ :12.5 / :19.1 (2m rest)
- 5 x 300 @ :41.5 (2-3 m rest)
- 8 x 150 @ :20.2 (1-2m rest)
- Longer warm up and extra stretching

2 laps striding straight and walk curves

6 x 120 – stride 60 sprint 60 = 120

4 x 2, med and 4 x 400 exchanges

10 x flying 50’s – finish with 3/4 speed 250 - Longer warm up

8 x 100 strides 1 x 300 medium

open 200 & 400 – starts from blocks on curve

full speed 4 x 2, 4 x 4, med exchanges

4 x 4 team start @ 200 mark and jog together, then one man bursts and others

follow (150) (do this until each man has his chance) - 6 x 150 on first curve :18.5 – :19.5 (1 1/2m rest)

4 x 100 last curve :12.3 – :12.9 (1m)

4 x 200 / med / 4 x 400 exchanges – if you start relay – 5 x 40 from blocks

runners 2, 3, 4, 5 x 40 standing start

2 laps cool down - 2 warm up laps and pre-meet warm up

3 x 150 on first curve

2 x 100 on last curve

2 quality exchanges @ location and lanes you will have at State

2 lap cool down - 2 mile run with accelerations
- 3-5 x 250m @90 second recovery, or

6-9 x 150m @ 3 minute recovery - 2-3 x 300m (Race Model), 12 minute recovery
- 6 X 30 w/370 jog rec. & 3 X 100 w/300 jog rec.
- 2 sets of 300-jog-100-300 or 3-4 X 350 w/3 min. rec.
- 2 sets of 300-100jog-300
- 8-10 X 100 w/5 min. rec.
- 2-3 X 350 w/3 min. rec.

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